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教员手记,二〇一四考研立陶宛共和国(Republi

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第十五讲 轻松句、并列句和复合句

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风流倜傥。考试大纲供给

  语法知识点1

质量评定大纲须求考生能科学剖断句子的类型、深入分析句子结构、结合语境和句意采用适当的连接词语、剖断主语和从句的科学语序、得当选择主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

  1.as...as.。。指点的可比级:(1)“as 形容词或副词原级 as 被相比对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像你相似学习努力。

二。命题导向

  (2)在否定句或难点句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高考对简易句、并列句和复合句的考察首要不外乎:句子的组织、连词的筛选、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习于旧贯用语和极度的句式应用。

  2.only引导的倒装句型:only 状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  独有努力、正直,一人在生活中本领幸不辱命。 

1.轻便句、并列句和复合句

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  唯有那位女孩子知道怎么解那道题。

① 句子类别三种分类法

  3.wish辅导的虚构语气:wish 前边的从句,现代表与实际相反的场地,或代表今后不太恐怕实现的意思时,其宾语从句的动词方式为: 

绳趋尺步句子的用处,日文的句子可分:呈报句(明确、否定)、疑问句(日常、特殊、接纳、反意)、祈使句、惊叹句等各个。

  ⑴表示对现在情景的杜撰:从句动词用过去式或过去实行式表示,be 的过去式用were.   

根据句子的构造可分:轻松句并列句和复合句三种。

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    小编愿意知晓那几个主题素材的答案。(缺憾不了然。) 

简短句独有三个主语或并列主语和二个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and, but, or,so等)或事务部(;)把多个或三个以上的简便句连在一齐构成。复合句:含有三个或三个以上从句的句子。复合句包涵:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

  ⑵代表对过去景色的杜撰:从句动词用had 过去分词。 

② 并列句的归类

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  小编后悔不应当浪费这么多时间。( 实际辰月经浪费掉了。) 

视同一律句指把八个相同主要的句子连接在一块,句子之间常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等并称连词连接。

  ⑶表示对未来的主观意愿:谓语动词形式为“would/ should/ could/ might 动词原形”。在此种情形下,主句的主语与从句的主语不能够长期以来,因为主句的主语所梦想的从句动作能或不能够贯彻,决意于从句主语的姿态或希望(非动作名词除却) 。 

意味着选用涉及常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能结束。 

意味着转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,能够代表央求,平日意味着说话人的痛苦或不满。

表示因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  笔者希望您安然一些。 

2.状语从句:

  4.it格局宾语:和it 作情势主语同样,  大家常用it 来作格局宾语, 把真正的宾语从句放在句末, 这种场所更是出以往带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的归类

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他评释她不会屈性格很顽强在暗礁险滩或巨大压力面前不屈。 

状语从句常常修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由从属连词辅导,从属连词在从句中不担负句子成分。依照状语从句所表达的两样含义和信守,可分为时间、地方、原因、条件、目标、结果、退让、相比、方式等状语从句。

  5.The 比较级,the 比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的用语

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。大家越惊惶困难,困难就能变得越强盛。

时光状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as, hardly/ scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.风度翩翩……就……,while, till, until, since, once。名词词组the first time第叁回,last time最终一遍,every/each time每便,the next time下一次,the next day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant 豆蔻年华……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

  语法知识点2

案由状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

  1. 宾语从句:常常难题句做宾语,引入if或whether

地址状语从句:where,wherever(无论这里)。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

拗可是状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though, although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however, wherever, whenever等。

  2. 原因状语从句:since引导的

基准状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(尽管;只要),in case (万大器晚成); on condition that(如若), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

目标状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

正如状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……) 指引。

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

办法状语从句:as(正如;依照),as if/as though (好像)携带。

  4. If虚构条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以致于)。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could 动原
跟过去事实相反 had done would/should/might/could have done
跟将来事实相反 should 动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could 动原

(3)从句中的语序

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词前面,作介词的宾语。

复合句中数不胜数选取陈诉语序。不过,在底下的三种情景下,状语从句多接收倒装语序:

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。

①当连词as, though连接妥协状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词通常置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。譬如:

  6.状语从句轻松(分词作者状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语豆蔻梢头致,状从轻便选拔分词作者状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John。

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn't get the door open。

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的多少个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such...that.。.结果状语从句中,so 形容词/副词或such 名词置于句首时,主句采纳局地倒装语序。举个例子:

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 sb 表示“后边一个意况适用于后人”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere.

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

  3.定语从句 who指导的约束性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no sooner置于句首时,第一个分句选用部分倒装语序,即把第二个分句用陈说语序。比如:

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教大家俄语的不行女孩啊?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一齐指引迁就状语从句,句子采取陈说语序。举例:

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the 相比级the 相比级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子如故接收陈说语序。比如:Education is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you are。

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 代表 “既然”。与 since 的不一致之处在于,now that 引出的总得是二个新面世的谜底或状态,纵然依然依然,和千古看待并未变化,则毫不 now that 指点。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然我们把具备素材都图谋好了,大家应有立时最早那项新的做事。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态常常信守以下的原理:

  7. 缘故状从:for的用法。由because 辅导的从句如若身处句末,且后边有逗号,则能够用并列连词 for 来替代。但大器晚成旦不是印证直接原因,而是各类景色再说猜想,就必须要用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他后天没来,因为她生病了。

①意味着“同期”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while 等连接的日子状语从句,主句和从句时态基本生机勃勃致。举个例子:As time passed, things seemed to get worse。

  8. 缘由状从:as 的用法。例句:The 新加坡共和国 passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

② 表示“以往”意义的条件、时间和妥洽状语从句中多用日常以后时,而主句用平日现在时,被称为“主将从现”。比方:汤姆won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

③ since教导的时光状语从句多用经常过去时,而饱含since从句的主句平常用明天落成时。比如:I haven’t met her since I left university。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 合资化的长处在于能带动相互竞争。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no sooner…than…中,第三个分句中过去形成时,第三个分句用平常过去时。比如:She had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

  10. 不定式:不定式做指标状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though 教导的状语从句中,假如表示风流浪漫种与实际相反夸张,从句多用通常过去时或过去达成时。譬如:She stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

  作品来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的简单

当从句的主语与主句的主语相相同的时候,被动结构的状语从句,可粗略与主句雷同的主语和助动词,保留连词 过去分词;主动协会的状语从句,可粗略与主句相仿的主语和助动词,保留连词 现在分词。举个例子:We all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get worse。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

(6)状语从句被用来强调社团中

状语从句作为被强调有个别用来强调组织时,风度翩翩律用It is/was …that…,不可能用when取代that。句子用陈诉语序。注意:当重申Not until 时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再利用倒装语序。比如:It was not until the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  1. 名词性从句

(1)名词性从句分类:

依照在句中的功效,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句两种。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担当成分,有时可被总结;表示“是还是不是”用whether,独有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if代替。Whether和if在从句中不担当元素。倘若从句贫乏主语、表语、宾语、或定语等句子成分,用一而再再三再四代词what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which;假诺从句缺少状语,用三回九转副词when, where, how, why。

是因为总是代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因此从句中谓语不用难题语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充任句子成分,而三番五次词whether 和if(是还是不是),在从句中不辜负担句子成分,只起一连功用。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

① 在偏下二种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should 动词原形”, should可归纳。

(1)It is 形容词 that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural, funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(让人好奇的)等。

(2) It is 名词 that…句型。常见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion, proposal(提出,提出), requirement, request, desire, order等。

(3) It is 动词的过去分词 that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose, request, suggest, demand, require等。

②在insist(持行百里者半九十), urge (督促), order(命令), command(命令), suggest(建议),advise(提议),recommend(提议,推荐), request(央浼,必要), demand(供给),require(供给,须求)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”, should可回顾。

③ 在富含advice, order, demand, proposal(提出), requirement, suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”,should可粗略。

④在有的表示好奇、意志等激情色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”或“should have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。譬如:

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  1. 定语从句

(1)定语从句的归类

定语从句分为限定性定语从句非限定性定语从句二种。限定性定语从句对先行词起修饰和界定成效,而非节制性定语从句对先行词起互补和阐述表达效果与利益。平日限定性定语从句与先行词之间未有逗号,而非节制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔绝。

(2)定语从句的涉嫌代词和关系副词

定语从句经常由关系代词和涉嫌副词辅导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose, which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where, why。关系代词和涉及副词必需放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着接连几日来先行词和从句的效果,相同的时候在从句中又出任句子成分。

(3)关系代词和关系副词的用法:

①超越行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;②当先行词为物或任何句虎时用which,可作主语或宾语;③优先词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤ 关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地方,在定语从句中作地方状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(4)限定性定语从句与非约束性定语从句的分别

①限定性定语从句:从句与主句关系紧凑,去掉从句,主句意义不完全,以至不合逻辑。比方:I was the only person in our office who was invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完全)

② 非限定性定语从句:从句与先行词关系然而细,去掉定从句,意思还是安然无事。情势上用逗号隔开分离,无法that用教导。举个例子:His movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意味仍完整)

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的多少个难点

①用that而不用 which的情事:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, much…;先行词有参天级修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。比方:There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

② 用which而不用 that的气象:辅导非限定性定语从句;指代整个主句的意味;用于介词 的末端 关系代词。举个例子:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an example。

③ 关系代词as的用法

a. 当现行反革命词为 the same 名词,such 名词时,要用关系代词as教导定语从句。比方:

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

b. as可代表主句的内容,教导的非节制性定语从句既可放在主句早前,也可放在主句之后。常用来下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。比方: He got the first place again in this mid-term examination, as we expected。

c. as 指引非约束性定语从句时与which的分别

当主句和从句语义意气风发致时,用as指点;反之,用which来指引迷津非限定性定语从句;当非约束订语从句为否定意义时,常用which指引。比方:

He made a long speech, as we expected。

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

④关乎代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数仍旧用复数应由先行词决定。比方:

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the morning。

⑤ 引导定语从句的涉及副词不经常能够用“介词 which”来顶替。举个例子:

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was founded。

⑥在”介词 关系代词”结构中,关系代词只好用which和whom,且无法大约;假如介词在句末,关系代词可用which, that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可归纳。举个例子:

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be friendly。

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