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Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and the gap is widening

在高中和大学阶段,男孩正被女孩超过,且距离正稳步拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College, a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being left behind by girls.

一所高档塞尔维亚语寄宿高校的校长AnthonySeldon称“那点点滴滴取决于他们的大脑、身体和荷尔蒙”。LondonBronx Leadership Academy市长伊凡Yip称“他们遍及以为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前者收取薪俸3.8万日元一年并留存潜水俱乐部;而另二个为其大多数上学的小孩子提供午饭补贴,1/2的学员有特别教学供给。可是,它们都平等致力于化解一样难题:青年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago. Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls, and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是贰个十几年前不可能想像的主题材料。直到19世纪70年间从前,男孩比女孩成本更加长日子并获得更高等教学育,且更有异常的大希望从大学毕业。未来,无论是富裕世界依旧更加的多的贫乏国家,平衡向另一方倾斜。曾经担心女孩贫乏正确信心的政策制订者们,未来越多日子在强行男孩眼前摆荡《哈利波特》。瑞士联邦政党已委托了一项关于“男孩风险”的琢磨。澳洲扩充了一项”男孩,哥们,书和比特”的种类。仅仅几代时间内,前贰个性别差距消失,而后一种性别差距又并发。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time, a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study, girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to an**extra**year of schooling.

以法国首都为集散地的富贵世界智库OECD于七月5号公布了一份简报中体现了这种反转。男人在数学领域的主导地位差不离会不断。在平均年龄十伍岁时,男孩超越同年龄女孩五个月。在自然科学领域,男女学生表现杰出。不过,在阅读领域,女孩向来保持当先地位,且距离变得更加大。在那项商量所涉及的63个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现特出。女孩平均比男孩超前一个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to drop out of school altogether.

因进一步深造必要借助读写才具,OECD将它作为评估中最根本的技艺。果真如此,在贯彻数学、阅读和自然科学的基本功效力时,年轻男孩比女孩多出二分一的败诉大概。在这一个部落的青少年人,因无所依靠和无所出色,而更有极大可能率从该校辍学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom, first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than the average boy, who spends more time playing video games and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要明白为什么男人和女人在课堂内显示出那般反差,先从课堂之外活动动手。一般拾九周岁女孩每一周费用5.5时辰去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多三个时辰,他们开销更加的多时光玩电子游艺和上网。3/4的女人将阅读作为消遣,而唯有八分之四多点的匹夫这么做。随着显示屏稳步把目光从书册挪开,世界上具备地点的阅读率正稳步下降,而男士下落速度越来越快。OECD开采,在那一个和一般女人职业一般的男人中,在翻阅方面包车型大巴性别差距减少了二分之一左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,” says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

一教书,哥们就期盼快点甘休。在告知中,多于女孩子2倍的男士认为上课是浪费时间,况兼更有的时候迟到。就如过去教授努力说服女生自然科学并不只是男人领域,OECD这段日子提出老人和计划拟订者指引男人隔断将忽视学术成就作为汉子气概表现的这种主张。Yip校长说:“男孩面对着形形色色的下压力。但不幸的是,他们计划在坏行为上不负被人希望。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives teachers crazy.

当已经有多数办事可供未受教育男人选拔时,男孩鄙视高校还显得没那么非理性。不过那三个生活已经不复存在。只怕有些傲然有利于男士学习数学,自信驱使男人超过(但一时则成为一种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们熟识”设想缩放“这一概念,而这一假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但她俩缺少自律让名师很发烧。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a year, even when they are of equal ability.

可能因为她俩这么令人难以忍受,青少年男孩常常给予相当低分数。OECD发掘,男孩在佚名测量试验中的表现好于教师评估。在阅读方面的性别差距减少了约得其半;而在数学方面,已抢先的男人将出入拉大。另一探讨展现,因老师缺乏公平,就算手艺特出。匹夫也比女人更有十分大可能率被要求复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**, all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour. Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings. In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

形成这种反差对待?一种大概的解释是师资给予那个礼貌、热心和远远地离开打斗的学员越来越高分数,而这几个特点在女孩中尤为分布。在一些国度,以至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另一种大概是,女人,构成了十分七的小学教授的和相近八成的初级中学年岁至期頣师,更偏幸她们本身的性别,就如男人上级偏幸男子下属一般。在局地地点在法兰西网球国际比赛中也可能有性别主义:新加坡照旧允许鞭刑男人,而女子则免于该民事诉讼法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap in maths. No country has managed both.

在稍微国家为男孩表现能够提供了条件。在拉美,阅读方面包车型大巴性别差距相对不大。如智利、哥伦比亚(República de Colombia)、墨西哥和秘鲁共和国(La República del Perú)的男士落后于女子小于别的地点。不过,令人思疑的是,那总伴随着男子在数学方面当先于女人的差距加大。反过来也创立。女孩与男孩在数学方面突显相当的冰岛、挪威和瑞士联邦,挣扎于令人发怒的逐年加宽的阅读方面性别差别。自二〇〇四年OECD最终二回就此开展的科学普及遍向上调解查显示,少数国家汉子在翻阅方面遭遇了女孩子,而在另一部分国度女子成功收缩了数学方面包车型大巴分歧。但没有国家成功实现双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere (see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that may rise to 58%.

中间教育之后,女子的抢先地位继续保持。直至新近数十年,男人大约攻陷高校的主流人群,特别是未可厚非与工程领域的高阶课程。可是,随着高教在世界范围的旭日东升,女人入学拉长率大约两倍于男人。在OECD报告显著,女人注册率由一九八二年的51%升起至51%,到2025年可能回涨至三分之一。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several, including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

不怕在少数女性是少数人全的OECD国家,女子数量也再慢慢攀升。与此同临时间,一些席卷U.S.、英帝国和澳大里士满(Australia)国度,女子比男性人口多于十分之五。在无数美利坚联邦合众国奇才公立大学中,性别比例越来越平衡。许多少人以为这一个大学的不透明招生规范越来越偏心男性。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD, when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女人化进程如此缓慢,以致于在不短日子内未被人发掘。据OECD的Stephan Vincent-Lancrin称,当2010年一份有关报告摘马上,人们“不依赖那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education, health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing, engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences, business and law they have moved ahead.

进入大学的女子,相对于她们的男人同僚,更有比较大可能率结业,且获得越来越好地培养。不过,男子和女人所选科指标侧向分歧。越来越多地女子选拔教育、健康、艺术和人管医学科,而雄性人类越来越多选择Computer、工程和Mini科学等课程。在数学方面,女子正长久以来,而在科学、社科、商业和法律方面,她们处于超过地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself. These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50 about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

相对于任何蓄意的政策,社会变革更便于于慰勉女性步入高教。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的骤降,以及晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女子找寻专业提供了有助于。随着更加的多女子步向工作景况,歧视变得没那么肯定。一旦女人被冀望全数专门的工作发展时,女孩就开采到学习的基本点。上涨的离异率使得女人开采到本身供养的主要。近来,无论是学业上依然职场上,世界各州的女孩比男孩表现出更北海想。神乎其神,在19世界上半叶,差不离大半美国做事禁止已婚女人从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012, argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not only**educationally**but increasingly also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many countries worry about the**prospect**of a growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will have**to marry down**or not at all.

那正是说,女子是还是不是慢慢变为主旨性别?出版于二〇一二年的Ranna Rosin的《The End of Men and the Rise of Women》中建议,至少在花旗国,女子不独有教育上一马超越,还在专门的学问上和社会上超过。很多国度的计策拟订者顾虑数量逐年攀升的下层阶级的教诲程度很低的男子的以往前景。女子也相应忧虑这一点。在过去,女子一般与同阶层或超过本身阶层的男人结婚。假使这种男子非常少,大许多女子只好搜索下阶层男性或选拔不拜天地。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium, suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their further education.

据OECD展现,虽不是整套,可是在好些个国家,高教投入对女性的回报超越男性。一家访问收入数据的百货店America PayScale开采,女子对于大学文凭的投资报酬率相对于男性来讲,非常低或(在最棒处境下)相似。纵然女人完整表现更为,但她俩报酬水平仅为男性的3/4。主因在于相对于工程或微型Computer科学等,女子采取教育、人文和社科那类薪金异常的低科目。然则,学术商讨展现相对于男子,女人更加少的关切薪水,展现了谋求高回报并不是女人追求高教的根本原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality, ambition and experience come to matter more.

在高高的层级的小购销和行业内部领域,女子依旧非常少。女人在学校所显现优势被改变局面。在学堂,随想及考试评价是无名的,性别因素被幸免,而爱护女子不受性别歧视的影响。不过,来自于大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国CraneField教院的埃利sabeth Kelan称,在干活场馆守旧形式再次应验本人。同等数量的男人和女人葠加经济高校和法律大学,可是,10-15年现在,大多女人选拔了更为干燥的营生路径或费用更多时光陪孩子。与此同临时候,随着在此以前习得的经历的严重性渐渐消亡而特性、雄心和经验成为更为主要的震慑因素,男子在生意层级上逐级攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after 40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not come without big structural changes.

不短一段时间以来,流传着一种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学也许职场,女人所占比例相差,由此要求时间去构造建设通往高层职位的门路。不过40年以来,一些国度结业生人数中女人形成主流,那项论证更加的站不住脚。据华盛顿圣Louis分校学院历史学教授ClaudiaGoldin称,女人崛起的最终环节--平等的薪资和特等专门的学业恐怕--若不开展大幅结构调治是不会赶来。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common, for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised, meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AE揽胜极光的新式文献中,Goldin女士发觉高品质劳引力中,在做事生活的10到15年间,男子时辰薪水与女人差距巨大,重要原因在于高收益专业的大幅度奖金取决于长日子专门的学业和随时应对电话为前提。全部来说,男子相对于女子更加长于如此行事。在这种职业办法广泛的世界,如商业和法规,性别薪给差别依旧一点都不小。并且,乃至长期离开专业意况也只怕引致严重惩罚,意味着阿娘索要付出十分的大代价。而当职业工资重要依赖工时长度时,仿佛配药房,性别薪给差别异常的小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are suffering, but unskilled men.

高尔德in女士称:有个别专门的工作是难以达成灵活性的,就像是那个老总s、庭审律师、男科医务人士、银行家和一部分有名政客们。而除此以外别的职业,工资并不是在于随时待命。同期,受过优秀教育且想要脱离专门的学业的男子也会从中受益。不过,新的性别差别位于薪俸范围的另一端。受苦的并不是女性,而是无手艺的男人。

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5 million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions – Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the trend reversed with boys doing better。

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK, girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16, called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like studying for GCSEs。“

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the questions facing educators in many countries。

  Glossary 词汇表

  gender equality男女一样

  factor因素

  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend逆袭一种趋势

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑帮心态

  solo单独的,独自地

  cool酷

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  school curricula高校课程

  to reflect反映

  作品来源:BBC

实习编辑:王雨欣 责编:赵润琰

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